Public Collections

Arithmeum, Bonn
Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris
Carré Estampes, Luxembourg
Collection Ruppert, Würzburg
Collection Hoppe-Ritter, Waldenbuch
Collection Centre d’Art Bouvet-Ladubay, Saumur
Vass Gyűjtemény, Budapest
Fonds National d’Art Contemporain, Paris
Forum Konkrete Kunst, Erfurt
FRAC Bretagne FRAC Basse Normandie
FRAC Lorraine FRAC Nord-Pas-de-Calais
FRAC Poitou-Charentes
Hochschule für bildende Künste, Saarbrücken
Magyar Nemzeti Galéria, Budapest
Kassák Múzeum, Budapest
Kunsthalle Bremen
Mondriaanhuis, Amersfoort
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Brest
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Budapest
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen
Musée de Calasetta Musée National d’Art moderne, Centre Pompidou (MNAM), Paris
Museum Sztuki, Lódz
Museum Wrocław
National Library, Tokyo
National Library, Zagreb
Paksi Képtár, Paks
Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, Norwich
Sammlung E Musée d’Ottendorf
Staatliche Kunstsammlung Dresden, Dresden
Stiftung für konkrete Kunst, Reutlingen
Stiftung für Konkrete Kunst, Ingolstadt
Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Wilhelm-Hack-Museum, Ludwigshafen
Worcester Art Museum, Worcester

Solo Exhibition (Selection)

2022
Casado Santapau Gallery, Madrid, Spain
2019
Vera Molnar – Retrospektive Zum 95-Sten Arbeiten Von 1949 – 2019. Galerie Linde Hollinger – Ladenburg, Ladenburg
Vera Molnar. Vintage Galéria, Budapest
2018
Vera Molnar – Zeichnungen / Kunstkabinett. Galerie Linde Hollinger – Ladenburg, Ladenburg
Vera Molnar: Drawings 1949-1986. Senior & Shopmaker Gallery, New York
2017
Vera Molnar – Spielerisch, Minimal. DAM Gallery, Berlin
2016
Love Story – Paper Works From 1974 – Vera Molnar. TORRI, Paris
2015
Vintage Galéria, Budapest
Recherche d’art visuel. Galerie Linde Hollinger – Ladenburg, Ladenburg
Regarding The Infinite Drawings 1950-1987. Senior & Shopmaker Gallery, New York
(Un)Ordnung. Museum Haus Konstruktiv, Zurich
2014
DAM Gallery, Berlin
(Un)Ordnung. Museum für Konkrete Kunst, Ingolstadt
2013
Vera Molnar – True Story. TORRI, Paris
Vom Sichtbaren Zum Lesbaren. MUWA – Museum der Wahrnehmung, Graz
Tremblement. CNEAI, Chatou
2012
Vera Molnar. Kunsthaus Rehau, Institut für konstruktive kunst und konkrete poesie, Rehau
Vera Molnar, une rétrospective 1942-2012. Musée des Beaux Arts de Rouen, Rouen
One percent disorder. Kepes Központ, Eger
2011
86 (Part III). TORRI, Paris
2010
Vera Molnar/Cézanne. Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest
86. TORRI, Paris
Tourner en rond. Galerie Cour Carrée, Paris
Variations Ste-Victoire. Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest
60 ans de carrés. Galerie Oniris, Rennes
2009
Perspectives et variations. Frac Lorraine, Metz
Né en 1924. Galerie März, Mannheim
2008
Pliages, tableaux, dessins. Galerie März, Mannheim
The early beginnings-Vera Molnar. DAM Gallery, Berlin
Hommage à Dürer (with François Morellet). Vasarely Múzeum, Budapest
Hommage à Paul Klee. Galerie La Ligne, Zu¨rich
Hommage à Dürer, variations (with François Morellet). Paksi Képtár, Paks
2007
Car je n’aime pas la couleur verte. Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen
Vers l’épure. Galerie Cour Carrée, Paris
M… Galerie Oniris, Rennes
Lignes. Galerie März, Ladenburg
2006
Parallèles. Galerie La Ligne, Zu¨rich
Tableaux et séries. März Galerien, Ladenburg
Vera Molnar, Etudes et multiples. März Galerien, Mannheim
Monotonie, symétrie, surprise. Kunsthalle, Brème
2005
Droites et courbes. Galerie Cour Carrée, Paris
Vera Molnar. Galerie Charpa, Valence
Signes et signatures. Galerie Oniris, Rennes
Vera Molnar et Marta Pan – Thèmes et variations. Musée des Beaux-Arts de Brest
2004
Vera Molnar/Julije Knifer, Lignes et méandres. Fondation Claudine et Jean-Marc Salomon, Alex
Grecques, après tremblement de terre. Artothèque d’Auxerre, Auxerre
M, comme Malevitch und andere Buchstabenbilder. März Galerien, Mannheim
Vera Molnar – Als das Quadrat noch ein Quadrat war, rétrospective pour le 80ème anniversaire. Wilhelm-Hack-Museum, Ludwigshafen
Dessins. Sala do Risco, Lisbonne
2003
Hasards canalizes. Gutmann Galéria, Budapest
Vera Molnar. Városi Képtár, Győr
Dessins. März Galerien, Mannheim
2002
Vera Molnar. Espace Fanal, Bâle
Variations. Galerie Oniris, Rennes
Tableaux. März Galerien, Ladenburg
Hasards prémédités. Galerie Cour Carrée, Paris
2001
Des chemins sinueux. März Galerien, Mannheim
Fragments de Méandres. Institut Culturel Hongrois, Stuttgart
Peintures. Collages, Dessins, Musée de Grenoble, Grenoble
Entre droites et courbes. Galerie Emilia Suciu, Ettlingen
reConnaître – Vera Molnar. Musée de Grenoble, Grenoble
2000
Lignes-OEuvres récentes. Galerie Oniris, Rennes
Au crayon, à la plume, au pinceau, à l’ordinateur. Centre d’Art Contemporain Bouvet-Ladubay, Saumur
Computerzeichnungen. Galerie, St. Johann, Saarbru¨cken
Lettres de ma mère. Centre d’art CAMAC de Marnay-sur-Seine
Promenade à Ladenburg, exposition + installation. März Galerien, Ladenburg
1999
Une visite guidée à travers mon cerveau. Espace Gustave-Fayet, Sérignan
Inventaire – Hommage au 75ème anniversaire de Vera Molnar. März Galerien, Ladenburg
Extrait de 100 000 milliards de lignes. Le Crédac, Ivry-sur-Seine
Réflexions contemporaines (with Françoise Malaprade). Galerie Cour Carrée, Nancy
1998
Sensibilité numérique – 1957-97. Vismara Arte, Milan
Sculptures, dessins (with Marta Pan). Espace de Luynes, Chevreuse
Vera Molnar, Manfred Mohr. Galerie Lahumière, Paris
1997
Peintures 1966-1996. Galerie Oniris, Rennes
Lettres de ma mère. Magyar Intézet, Paris
Tango. Château Bouchemaine, Bouchemaine
1996
Pink und Rouge. März Galerien, Mannheim und Ladenburg
Tango. Musée d′Art et d′Histoire, Cholet
4 livrimages. École des Beaux-Arts, Valenciennes
OEuvres sur papier. Galerie Florence Arnaud, Paris
Ligne. Ernst Múzeum, Budapest
Géométrie au XXème-siècle (with Friedrich Riedelsberger). Galerie Le Faisant, Strasbourg
1995
De l′Esprit à l′OEuvre. Muséed′Art et d′Histoire, Cholet
Tableaux (with François Morellet). März Galerien, Mannheim
1994
Tableaux dessins. März Galerien, Mannheim und Ladenburg
Ordres et (Dés)ordres. Wilhelm- Hack-Museum, Ludwigshafen
Géometrie du Plaisir. Gesellschaft für Kunst + Gestaltung, Bonn
Multiples. März Galerien, Mannheim
OEuvres récentes. (with Michel Jouët) Galerie Quadri, Bruxelles
Vera Molnar. “Sommaire” 1992-93. März Galerien, Mannheim und Ladenburg
1992
Travaux anciens. Galerie St. Johann, Saarbrücken
1990
Museum für moderne Kunst. Studio A, Otterndorf
Galerie St. Johann, Saarbrücken
Vera Molnar. Lignes, Formes, Couleurs. Vasarely Múzeum, Budapest
Stiftung für konkrete Kunst, Reutlingen
Neuf carrés. Gesellschaft für Kunst + Gestaltung, Bonn
Les Gothiques. Galerie St. Charles de Rose, Paris
1989
Rouges. Galerie Municipale Edouard Manet, Gennevilliers
Dialogue entre émotion et méthode II. Galerie Emilia Suciu, Karlsruhe
Rouges II. Fondation Vasarely, Aix-en-Provence
Tracés et traces. Magyar Intézet, Paris
1988
Dialogue entre émotion et méthode. (with Max Bill) Galerie E, Zürich
1984
Vera Molnar. Verlagshaus Lundquist, Lund
Rechteckaufbau Galerie Circular, Bonn
Creatic Galerie du Cirques Divers, Liège
Ostinato Galerie 30, Paris Studio X, Neapel
1983
Galleri Sankt Olof, Norrköping
1981
Inclinaison − (étude préliminaire à une toile). Crédit Agricole, Caen
Galleri Ferm, Malmö
1979
Vera Molnar. Paris – Caen. Atelier de Recherche Esthétique à Caen, Caen
Fiatal Képzőművészek Stúdiója, Budapest
1977
Galleri Ferm, Malmö
1976
Transformations. Polytechnic of Central London, London

Vera Molnar (Hungary 1924) studied art history and aesthetics at the Faculty of Fine Arts in Budapest before settling in Paris in 1947, where she took up abstract and geometric painting. All her work is based on a strict construction in which line and color are the only structural bases.

Molnar is considered a pioneer of digital art and generative art, being the first artist to use computers in her artistic practice. In the 1940s and 1950s, she digitally created the first non-figurative paintings using combinatorial images. In the early 1960s, her interest shifted to programmatic writing as she developed simple programs that allow the transformation of forms according to precise guidelines. The computer then, becomes a central device in his creation but, as she likes to point out, “the computer helps, but it does not make, draw or invent anything”.

Combining automated and manual practice, Vera Molnar tirelessly explores the infinite possible variations of lines and geometric shapes. Her research into bichromy and minimalism brought her closer to collaborative approaches linked to mechanical and kinetic art. Molnar was always obsessed with geometric forms and the creation of systems-based art: “My life is squares, triangles, lines, I’m crazy about lines,” she says. In 1960, together with Julio le Parc and Francois Morellet, she founded the group GRAV (Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visuel).

Before the computer, she invented algorithms or “imaginary machines” which, following a set of predetermined compositional rules, produced colorful abstract geometric works. His breakthrough came in 1968, when she gained access to a computer in a research lab after learning, on her own, the early Fortran programming language, where she could introduce infinite variations of algorithms through a machine. Through a laborious process, Molnar, using a language of 0 and 1, entered commands into the computer on punched cards or paper tape that were then sent to a plotter that transmitted the image directly to paper via a moving pen or pencil. This method allowed her to investigate infinite variations in lines and geometric shapes. That same year, against all odds, she finally managed to persuade the director of the data centre at the University of Paris to grant her access to its expensive new research computer so that she could experiment with algorithmic drawings. She was allowed to feed a few lines of code into the terminal, which made the processor began to calculate shapes and lines, and the result was traced with a pen on paper. Little did the 44-year-old artist know that, from that first encounter with the computer, she would grow to become a pioneer of digital art and a source of inspiration for many generations of artists, and whose work would be presented in major institutions around the world.

However, her programmatic approach to creating artwork goes back much further. As a child, she undertook the daily ritual of drawing, every evening, the sunset over Lake Balaton, in Hungary, where she grew up. She quickly realised that she would always use the same four colors to represent the landscape so, to avoid using them up before the others, she invented a system: she replaced these crayons with those on her right, then with those on her left, and so on; all the while using her palette of pastels evenly. Each combination of these color schemes generated a new variation of the sunset.

Vera Molnar has never stopped systematically experimenting with parameters and principles. “Computers are nothing without the human brain that commands them to produce complicated combinations,” she says of using machines to make art. Sometimes automated, letting the computer guide the pen according to a given set of rules, sometimes manual, executing the algorithms with her own hand, the artist continually engages with both practices to investigate, always with a touch of ingenuity, the infinite range of possibilities.

For her computer works, Molnar participated in the now legendary exhibitions Konkrete Kunst, Zurich, 1960, curated by Max Bill and Cybernetic Serendipity at the ICA, London, 1968. Recent exhibitions include; MOMA New York, Thinking Machines: Art and Design in the Computer Age, 1959–1989, Artistes & Robots at the Grand-Palais, Paris and Chance and Control: Art in the Age of Computers at the Victoria & Albert Museum; all in 2018.

Her exhibition at Casado Santapau, the first in Spain, presents works ranging from the 1950s to the present day, some of which will be shown to the public for the first time. Vera Molnar not only embodies the cultural developments of computer technology, her work also opens countless doors to find new forms of creation and expression, especially in the field of digital arts. It is an absolute privilege to work with such an incredible person as Vera.